Cyber penetration testing, often referred to as "pen testing," is a proactive and controlled assessment conducted to evaluate the security posture of an organization's systems, networks, or applications. It involves simulating real-world attack scenarios to identify vulnerabilities and weaknesses that could potentially be exploited by malicious actors. A team of skilled and ethical security professionals, known as penetration testers, perform various techniques and methodologies to gain unauthorized access, escalate privileges, and compromise the targeted systems or applications. The objective of penetration testing is to uncover vulnerabilities and provide actionable recommendations for improving the organization's security defenses. The process typically includes reconnaissance, vulnerability scanning, exploitation, and post-exploitation analysis. Penetration testing can be conducted from an external perspective (external testing) or from within the organization's internal network (internal testing). By conducting regular penetration tests, organizations can identify and remediate security vulnerabilities, enhance their overall security posture, and proactively defend against potential cyber threats.